Opflow India

Severe Flooding Continues into Summer

With monsoon flooding that began in the spring continuing into July, the situation for the hardest-struck communities in Assam remains precarious, with at least 16 lakh people living in 22 districts affected, as estimated by the Assam State Disaster Management Authority in a 3 July 2020 article (click here) in India Today. ...Read More

Center Funds State Plans to Provide Rural Tap Connections

In the time of the COVID-19 outbreak, the CG has advised the state that water supply work in the villages be taken up urgently to provide tap connections, and community will play a pivotal role in planning, implementation, management, operation, and maintenance of water supply systems in villages to ensure long-term sustainability. ...Read More

India’s Tribal Areas Face Challenges From Water Scarcity and COVID-19

At the time of this writing on March 27, 2020, India is under lockdown to stop the spread of COVID-19 to the country’s 1.3 billion citizens. A few days earlier I visited the small village of Toranmal, a hill station located in Dhule on the border of Maharashtra and Gujarat states. This is a remote area that’s inaccessible by roads. Geographically, the area comprises the Satpuda hill ranges and is predominantly populated by tribal people who live in hamlets (padas) around Toranmal. ...Read More

Club Fans Volunteer for Water and Education Goals

Increasing access to safe water for primary schools in Bangalore is a critical need. Despite Bangalore’s status as one of the world’s fastest growing cities, many of its 12.3 million residents lack access to safe drinking water and are at risk of contracting waterborne diseases. For the Water Goals project supported by Manchester City and Xylem Watermark, the fans worked with Xylem and its local partner Planet Water Foundation to install new clean-water filtration towers in two new schools. ...Read More

It’s Time to Address India’s Water Challenges

Indians are water-stressed people. According to NITI Aayog, the country’s per capita water availability has declined about 70 percent during the past 60 years. As a result, nearly 600 million Indians face high to extreme water stress. The paradox is that India’s annual water requirement is 3,000 billion cubic meters, and the county receives 4,000 billion cubic meters of rain every year on average. Is it germane to ask how a country of 1.3 billion people fails to use one-fourth of the water it receives annually from the rain gods? ...Read More

Goa Minister Disputes Karnataka’s Water Project

Goa Chief Minister Pramod Sawant led an all-party delegation on 4 Nov. 2019 in New Delhi to meet Union Minister of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change Prakash Javadekar and discuss reports that the Karnataka government had been given a clearance for constructing the Kalasa– Banduri project on the Mahadayi (Mandovi) River, according to a 5 Nov. 2019 article (https://bit.ly/2QwguRQ) in The Indian Express. ...Read More

New MOU Partnership, Governmental Policies Panel Top AICE’19 Events

AWWAIndia held its third international Annual Conference and Exposition, AICE’19, in Mumbai, 13–14 Dec. 2019, with the goal of bringing together policymakers, utilities, practicing engineers, and academicians to find innovative solutions for the Indian water industry’s challenges. In all, there were 252 delegates, 18 hours of thought leadership and content dissemination, 35 speakers, and seven technical sessions as well as a Utility Council Meet and the third gathering of the Women’s Networking Forum. AICE’19 highlights included an inaugural panel (Governmental Policies on Water and Wastewater:Past, Present and Future) and the signing of a memorandum of understanding (MOU) between AWWAIndia and Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB). MPCB plans a comprehensive program to prevent, control, or abate pollution through various environmental regulations in Maharashtra state. MPCB joined AWWAIndia as an Environment Partner at AICE’19 with a five-year commitment. ...Read More

MISSION BHAGIRATHA: Union Minister Weighs Telangana’s Safe Water Projects for India

It’s the government’s responsibility to provide safe drinking water to people, Union Water Resources Minister Gajendra Singh Shekawat said during an official visit, and the CG was considering such a project implementation through close coordination with state governments all around India. He noted that in addition to ensuring safe drinking water supply, another priority should be efforts to put in place effective systems for treating wastewater to enable its reuse for domestic and agriculture purposes. ...Read More

Government Urges States to Focus on Water-Saving Schemes

“The Central Government is setting its sights on water conservation, sometimes called “source sustainability,” in advising states as they plan next year’s budgets, according to a 1 Nov. 2019 article (https:// bit.ly/2Nhsjdc) in The Indian Express. Issuing guidelines for states preparing 2020–2021 financial year labor budgets under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), the Ministry of Rural Development has told states there should be a “special focus on water harvesting and water conservation, including river rejuvenation.” As part of its ambitious goal of providing tap water connections to rural households all around India by 2024, the government is focusing on source sustainability through river cleanup and water harvesting works under the MGNREGA.” ...Read More

Central Mission Focuses on Potable Water Provision to All Parts of India

Providing safe drinking water to all parts of India will be the focus of a newly created Central Government mission called Jal Jeevan, according to an article in Live Mint (https://bit.ly/2Zcfqru). The article covered Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s first Independence Day speech, delivered 15 August, 2019, since the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government returned to power after the recent elections. ...Read More

World Bank Pitches in to Support Resilience

When the most severe floods in a century hit the state’s coastal areas in 2018, some 400 lives were lost along with many homes. About 5.4 million residents, or some one-sixth of the state’s population, were affected, and 1.4 million were displaced from their homes, especially among the poor and other vulnerable populations. Another $250 million tranche is expected at a later date, as endorsed by the Indian government, according to a World Bank India official quoted in the article. ...Read More

Chennai Shortage Spurs Conservation Debate

With debate intensifying as if with the increasing heat, the Madras High Court accused the Tamil Nadu state government of inaction and a lack of proactive water management in Chennai’s present water supply crisis, noting the situation didn’t happen in a day, according to a 16 June article in The Guardian (https://bit.ly/2Zx7pdi). With the four reservoirs supplying most of Chennai’s drinking water has dried up, Chennai Metro Water was forced to cut the water it provides by about 40 percent, cutting supply to homes, schools, offices, and restaurants in a time of soaring temperatures. ...Read More

Advanced Flood Detection and Alert Systems to Expand

The pilot project involved Google partnering with India’s Central Water Commission to collect data for predictive modeling to more accurately gauge the effect of floods and alert those in most vulnerable areas ahead of events. Patna and environs were chosen for the pilot because of population density and severe riverine flooding frequency. The flood detection and alerting system for the 2019 monsoon season will cover areas along the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers. ...Read More


AWWAIndia, is committed to preserving, managing, and distributing clean water throughout the country and leveraging AWWA’s experience in water management to improve public health, protect the environment, and strengthen the Indian economy.Because AWWAIndia’s members are its greatest asset, this section profiles a member each month so they can share their experiences and expertise. This month, meet Dr. D. Hanumantha Chary! ...Read More

Women and Water Have More in Common Than the Letter W!

Water is a woe and a misery to more than 50 percent of the Indian population, and women bear the brunt of it more than men—especially in rural India where women must walk miles together to fetch just 20 litres (two pots full) of water for their family! Having shared the grim reality, and because International Women’s Day (March 8) was held this month, let me draw out a silver lining and bring in a pinch of optimism by sharing a few stories of water women (wonder women) who have made a difference in their world and the world of water in India! ...Read More

Washwater Recirculation Can Create Severe Problems

India has started facing the problems associated with polluted rivers. However, much more needs to be done, as industrial effluents and untreated sewage are increasing algae and organic levels in raw water. A similar situation existed in the United States between 1940 and 1960. Indeed, there are many similar wake-up calls. India’s authorities need to stop turning a blind eye and develop a comprehensive policy solution. ...Read More

Changing Mindsets in the Drinking Water Sector

In the last decade, rapid urbanization of India’s cities and towns (and even rural areas) has severely stressed the country’s water infrastructure. As soon as a water treatment facility is created it faces ever-increasing demand. Water supply and sanitation concerns are also expanding at an unprecedented pace. ...Read More

Consider Raw Water Quality and Pretreatment for Seawater RO

Seawater reverse osmosis (RO) systems are being employed on a large scale worldwide. The most crucial aspect of such systems is the feed water quality (seawater) to the RO membranes. Improving seawater quality improves RO performance and minimizes maintenance. ...Read More

Control Filter Rates Without Rate Controllers

During the filtration cycle (service cycle) the water’s initial operating level is low (height of outlet weir crest + initial head loss). As the media starts clogging, the water head above the media starts increasing gradually. Normally, the water level in the bed reaches up to the crest of the influent splitting weir, the service cycle is completed, and the filter is taken out of service for a backwash. ...Read More

Many Small Water Supply Schemes Need Greater Support

All these issues, and many more minor but relevant ones, make it difficult to provide the masses with safe, potable water. The Maharashtra government’s decision to decentralize its water supply schemes is logical and relevant in many cases. However, considering the ground reality of many rural areas, small capacity schemes need some kind of state assistance, aid, or subsidy in the immediate future if they’re to be sustainable and viable ...Read More

ACE18 Highlights Innovative Water Practice

With the 2015 launch of its India community, AWWAIndia, AWWA is using its knowledge and experience to help the Indian water industry maximize its resources and effectively distribute clean water throughout the country. To help get ACE18 under way, AWWAIndia’s Strategic Board Chair Shirish Kardile and Manager Aninda Sen assisted in the ceremonial lighting of the diya lamp of knowledge during the opening general session ...Read More

Consider the Pros and Cons of Slow Mixing

Hydraulic flocculation is another common approach in which baffled chambers provide turbulence to the water flowing over and under the baffles. “Around-the-corner” baffles are also used. Velocity gradients are generated when a change in flow direction
occurs. The energy input is in the form of head required to pass the flow through the baffles. In the old days, wooden partitions were used as baffles. More recently, brick, concrete, and plastic sheets have been used ...Read More

Installing the First Trilateral Underdrain System in India

The suggested filter underdrain included nozzles on a false-bottom floor for a uniform, concurrent air-water wash—a basic requirement for cleaning these types of beds. The process involves constructing a concrete slab about 0.90 m (3 ft) above the filter bottom to create a plenum chamber. The false slab is supported by multiple stub columns. The nozzles are embedded in the false bottom, over which the media is laid with minimum gravel support. This arrangement is cumbersome to construct and execute, and the additional concrete structural cost is considerable ...Read More

Weirs and Notches Are Honest Friends

clarifier launders fall into this class. A peripheral launder is required to collect the clarified water uniformly to ensure equal surface and weir loading. It’s difficult to ensure an equal weir level in concrete over the unit’s entire periphery. In such cases, V-notch weir plates (metallic or plastic) are fixed over the entire weir crest. It’s easy to install and ensure a desired water level ...Read More

An Alert Operator Saves the Day!

At 9:10 a.m., the team leader became slightly anxious, as the residual chlorine still wasn’t reporting nil. He went to the SMBS tanks and checked the solution level and dosing pump. Soon the anxiety started showing on the commissioning team’s faces. The crowd was waiting in anticipation, and the pressure became palpable by 9:20 ...Read More

AICE ’17 to Promote India’s Sustainable Water Future

The time has come to think holistically about all these water-related concerns. Surface water, groundwater, seawater, irrigation water, wastewater, storm water, recycled water, industrial process water, and effluents are all interrelated. AWWA has come up with a practical term for this concept: total water solutions. ...Read More

Inspire India’s Children to Ensure a Sustainable Water Future

To crack the jigsaw puzzle of India’s total water solutions will require many and mighty efforts, but there is hope. Indeed, if the world’s mightiest democracy could do it in the past, why not the largest in the present! ...Read More

Remembering a Failed Clarifier With No Remedy in Sight

I investigated the plant, and everything looked normal on the outside. The clarifier was huge, with a 60-m (54.8-yd) diameter. However, a closer look at the clariflocculator revealed that the vertical hangers at the bottom of the scraper and supported from the rotating bridge were twisted. ...Read More

How Indian Railways Saved a Parched Latur District

Tankers, with a capacity of 20,000 liters each, transported the water to a nearly discarded WTP about 4 km away. Emergency modifications were done to the conventional plant; basically, sodium hypochlorite (bleaching powder) was administered to disinfect the water. Local administrators made this decision to help ensure the water was safe to drink. Another tanker filling station was erected at the Latur WTP to supply the water to various areas in the town. Although the town had a distribution system, the system leaked heavily. ...Read More

What They Don’t Teach You in Engineering School

About 25 years ago, a young civil designer received an urgent telegram, asking him to report to Karmala, a town in Solapur District, Maharashtra, because a new 5-mld water treatment plant was experiencing problems during commissioning. While visiting the site, he found the inlet units (cascade aerator, Parshall flume, and flash mixer) were flooded, and raw water was overflowing the walls. Only a small portion of the water was getting through to the clariflocculator and falling into a peripheral channel. ...Read More

Water Temperature Changes Can Create Clarifier Problems

However, the clarified water quality deteriorated daily between 1100 and 1700 because the sun heated the raw water in the shallow storage lagoons and the exposed pumping main. The temperature increase each afternoon disturbed the plant’s delicate physiochemical balance, as the site’s summer ambient temperature rose to 38°C–42°C during the daytime ...Read More

Save Energy by Refurbishing and Coating Pumps

The study showed that however much a pump’s performance falls below its original manufacturer’s performance curve (head, flow, and efficiency), on average, mechanical restoration only restored approximately 50 percent of a pump’s performance. Sandblasting and coating were necessary to restore the remaining 50 percent ...Read More

Water Treatment Plants Overcome Nature’s Unexpected Behavior

ormally a dam stores heavy silt and acts as a kind of settling basin. However, the reverse was happening at Hatnur. An investigation at the Varangaon intake site revealed that the dam authorities opened the sluices at the bottom of the wall during a monsoon.The heavily silted water found a natural path through the river and intake, causing turbidity to exceed 5,000 mg/L. ...Read More

For Want of a Nail, Poor Water Quality Plagued a Small City

Fresh bleaching powder with an available chlorine content of about 20 percent was procured at the plant. Because the raw water quality had improved considerably then, only a 0.5 mg/L powder dose was given for prechlorination. The pH of the raw water remained about the same. ...Read More

Sustainable Water Treatment Plants Offer Hope for India’s Residents

Raw water is pumped from a canal, located 15 km away, running from the Gangapur Dam. A new 12-mld water treatment plant was constructed, as the old plant had become defunct. The new plant consists of a cascade aerator, Parshall, flume, flash mixer, clariflocculator, three rapid sand filter beds, chemical house, pure water sump and pump house, chlorine room, and tonner platform. ...Read More

Ash Bund Seepage Water Makes Water Treatment Plant Redundant

To improve the area’s drinking water, a small drinking water supply scheme was commissioned about three years ago in a nearby village a couple of kilometers from the south side of the thermal plant. A carbon steel plant is now in place and using about half a million L/day from the Darna. The intake well is 3–4 km away on the village’s south side. ...Read More

Town Faces Double Trouble Because of Failed Drainage

The council officers had accepted this reality. The district’s public health laboratory routinely tested the plant’s water, confirming it as “potable.” ...Read More

Town’s Guardian Angel of Public Health

He quickly went downstairs and opened one of the drain valves to release excess incoming raw water to reduce the overload. Smiling, he told me the problem will soon be over, as it was nearly the end of September. Then there won’t be a problem for another seven to eight months. ...Read More

Let Me Introduce You to a Water ATM

I wondered how the marketing companies had made “RO” a “brand” and not a “process.” So complete is their advertising and selling strategies that villagers have started thinking that “RO ATM” is the safest drinking water available. ...Read More

No Operator, No Water

The plant used some of the simplest, most foolproof technologies available for a manually operated, compact system. Unfortunately, the operator was nowhere to be seen. ...Read More

Namami Ganga Projects Launched in Large-Scale Cleanup Initiative

In a major development on July 7, 2016, the minister of Water Resources, River Development, and Ganga Rejuvenation, Sushri Uma Bharti, announced the launch of 231 projects worth `1,500 crore at multiple locations in Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Haryana, and Delhi states ...Read More

Report Delves Into Indian State and Local Reforms Needed for Smart City Development

"While cities in India plan to embed technology in the delivery of urban infrastructure and services, they should also plan to bridge the demand-supply gap in the provision of core urban services such as water, waste management, and sanitation," said the forum’s Alice Charles ...Read More